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A DAS is a network of relatively small antennas installed in an area such as a large building that works a signal repeaters. This means there are no isolated spots with bad network coverage. The technology has been around for over twenty years and in the last decade undergone great innovation with much more innovation on the way. To move a cell service to expand coverage and capacity inside a large building or outdoor network a provider needs a distributed antenna system.
The antenna’s are connected to a central controller which is attached to the wireless carriers network. The DAS can be either active or passive. An active system works by passing the signal through fibre cables. And the passive system allocates the cell signals from the roof antenna.
Deploying and installing a distributed antenna system is a project that is labor intensive and requires specialist technicians. DAS systems are generally installed in large buildings or areas to have cell signals spread evenly and provide voice and data services. Most high rise buildings will need a DAS for instance.
How A DAS Works
A distributed antenna system sends a receives cell signals on a carrier frequency. The DAS network improves voice and data connectivity for users. There are two sources;
- Signal Source
This is the signal that distributes from a fed signal. The signal feeding into the DAS comes from one these typical sources. Off air – an antenna of roof, on site base transceiver station and small cells.
- Distribution System
When the cellular signal is received it needs to be distributed throughout the building or area. The types of distribution systems include active – fibre optic or ethernet cable, passive, digital and hybrid.
The main reason for installing a DAS is to provide coverage and capacity needs that could not be met without it. That may be because the area has too many people using the network or building materials interfering with the signal, or even too much land between the user and signal.
The company providing and installing the DAS will be able to advise on which technology will get the best coverage and capacity suited to the site.
An offer air signal referred to also as a repeater uses a roof antenna to transmit signals from the carrier. This is one of the most utilized systems by businesses. As long as the signal from the roof antenna is strong this is the most cost effective DAS to deploy. This is because it is simply extending the coverage of the network and is quick to install. It will not add any capacity to the cell signal.
Base Transceiver Station (BTS)
This refers to the technology located inside the cell tower that generates a cell signal. Using a fibre network connection the DAS can connect to multiple base transceivers. It increases the capacity for voice and data. Ensuring thousands of users can access data simultaneously. This is more expensive to deploy than the off-air DAS and will take longer to deploy. The benefits include providing as much capacity as needed with high performance.
This is a newer technology compared to the above DAS networks. It works by creating a secure source back to the carriers network through an internet connection and generates a wireless signal. The small cells come in categories; femtocells, picocells, nanocells, and metrocells.
The coverage area provided by small cell is around 6,000 to 20,000 square feet. It is an expensive DAS network compared to off-air but again it depends on what a DAS is needed for as to what system is best. Used as a signal source for DAS, the small cell will provide excellent coverage and is a lower cost than a BTS network. The DAS small cell must have a reliable backhaul internet connection to be effective. Another bonis for the DAS on small cells is it is very fast to deploy.
Moving onto the signal distribution a passive DAS works by using coaxial cables, splitters and couplers to distribute a signal. The signal distribution must be close to the cell antenna as the further it moves away the more network loss will occur. The cost is kept down as there is no analog conversion of digital and less equipment is needed.
This works by converting analog frequency transmissions from the signal to digital signal for distribution. The technology converting the signal is called a master unit and it can convert from one signal or multiple signals. The digital signal travels on either fibre optic or ethernet cables. There is no constraint as the cables can be run unlimited and are easily expandable for any expansion needed.
A hybrid DAS is passive and active. It uses coaxial and cable for the distribution system. The hybrid system is less cost than a full active DAS and more than a passive as it does require some cabling infrastructure and more time to deploy.
This is the newest technology in the DAS space. It is the CPRI (common public radio interface) which allows a base band unit to communicate with the DAS master unit an onto remote units and needs no conversion to analog.
The future of DAS technology is going to be integral to generate better coverage and capacity for voice and data services. Its best to get advice and a deployment plan from leading DAS installers and innovators. That way the best DAS suited to specific needs can be installed and be the most cost effective option.
We have sourced the above information from years of production and delivery. We would like to cite the following websites as well:
Image credits: Earth Structures Group a rammed earth construction company
The homes made of rammed earth Australia offer comprehensive protection from the impact of environmental elements. They are highly resistant to fire, pests, moisture, and brittleness. They can last for decades with minimal maintenance. Moreover, the rammed earth house cost is the minimal and affordable when compared to the other materials.
What Is Rammed Earth
Rammed earth is the blend of sand, clay, and gravel with optional cement and other stabilizing elements. The mixture is rammed to form large solid structures and blocks for the purpose of construction. Adding of colouring pigments can help in creating attractive designs and patterns. They are extensively used for the design and construction of low-cost homes.
Rammed Earth House Plans – Sophisticated Features
You can create the most eco-friendly rammed earth house plans which connect the interiors to the exterior spaces. You can construct walls, rammed earth floor, roofs, retaining walls, fencing, window opening, and other architectural elements with rammed earth.
Colour Effects: The rammed earth mixture can blend into a vast range of colour pigments before the formwork. You can control the intensity of brightness or darkness and colour combinations accurately. They are more stable than exterior paints and last for decades without fading.
Designer Formwork: The formwork design for the cement stabilized rammed earth can be customized according to your specific needs. It can be square, rectangle, arch shape, or any other which your architect may recommend.
Load Bearing: The rammed earth mixture can take large loads after formwork and installation. Hence, you can use it for foundations for earth constructions (Adobe), walls, and floors. By blending it with cement, you can make it strong like concrete. It can endure the large loads of architectural structures, roofs, beams, and other structural elements. The stress capacity of the rammed earth is appreciable for hoses with one or two floors over the ground floor.
Thermal Protection: Rammed earth walls Melbourne can absorb heat from the external environment, preserve, and release it gradually when the temperature decreases. Hence, it provides warmth to your home interiors during winter nights. Various research works from rammed earth Sydney to rammed earth UK have practically proven it. You can find more information from the rammed earth wall construction PDF.
Textured Finishing: The rammed earth Willunga formwork can produce highly textured finishing for the walls and floors. Using the pneumatic tamping methods, it is possible to create the texture according to your customized needs.
Environment Friendliness: Rammed earth national uses the eco-friendly mixture of gravel, clay, and sand with chemical-free colour pigments. Hence, the carbon emission is near to zero. It is free from every type of toxic element which may otherwise create pollution.
Facade Options: The rammed earth roof in your home can have the sophisticated facade with good combinations of colour tones. Shaping the joints to allow natural light into your home can reduce energy consumption during the day for lighting and heating.
Open Gardens: The Maleny rammed earth roof can be a good place for open roof gardens on which you can grow flower plants, bonsai fruit trees, and grass easily. You need to take the adequate measures for draining the water away from the roof through drainage pipes.
Cool Bathroom: The rammed earth bathroom walls and floors can keep the temperature down during summers and warm during winters. The heat absorption and slow radiation properties of the material can keep your bathroom temperature under controlled conditions.
Economical Cost: The rammed earth cost per square metre is highly economical and affordable. Hence, you can construct reasonably large and aesthetically attractive homes at low costs. If you see the list of rammed earth houses for sale, the difference in cost becomes clear.
Rammed Earth Formwork for Sale – Stylish Constructions
You can find the rammed earth formwork for sale with the multitude of shapes and materials. Wood, steel, and aluminium are some of the most commonly sued materials. If you don’t want to buy, it is possible to create a DIY rammed earth formwork and use them.
Rammed Earth House for Sale – Affordable and Attractive
The architectural design of the rammed earth house for sale in Australia is highly sophisticated and attractive. At the same time, they are affordable due to the low-cost structures and the economical rammed earth homes cost per square foot. You can find them built amidst green gardens, next to pools, and also on the countryside. If you want to learn about the various architectural designs, the rammed earth construction PDF can be very helpful.
Rammed Earth Homes Pros and Cons
- Eco-friendly construction
- Reusable construction material
- Keeps home cool during hot days and warm during cold nights
- Custom designs and the vast range of colour combinations
- Easy and faster formworks
- Usage limited to homes with one or two floors
- Reinforcement needs can be high
- Limited soil selection options
Thinking about Rammed Earth Wall for your next project? We work with many architects and builders to create, design and install your rammed earth wall. Please contact us to arrange an appointment
There have been a lot of developments in the Construction sector, with newer, better and faster ways of constructions coming up. Apart from the traditional methods, a host of new techniques using better materials and quicker means are steadily catching up with the construction sector. Let’s get to know a few of these:
Concrete frame construction:
This is the most common type of construction we’re all pretty familiar with. A concrete slab is built, and this slab is given support by other materials which can vary from builder to builder. These materials include bricks, aluminium, glass or any other material that may be desired.
Timber framed construction:
This form is becoming increasingly in the United States and some parts of Europe. It’s because timber-framed buildings are easy to set up and can be done by anyone who has a sound knowledge of carpentry. Also, these homes are flexible enough and can be given any desired shape. Also, they are quicker to construct than the traditional method. The only drawback is that they are not fire proof and are easily combustible because of the extensive use of timber.
These buildings are not built at the site. They are created somewhere else and then shipped to the desired place and planted there. Mostly use by industries and warehouses as pre-engineered buildings are pretty economical and quicker to set up. Primarily materials like steel and other metals are utilised for pre-engineered buildings, as they are lighter and more convenient to transport.
Probably the most eco-friendly method of construction, Bamboo construction is used mostly to build bridges, shacks and even houses. Bamboo has an impressive compressive and tensile strength and proves to be quite a competition to other commonly used materials in construction. It had been used since ages in ancient times and is coming back in vogue again. Also, bamboo constructions give a very earthy look, which is why many resorts and holiday homes try to include some bamboo architecture.
Steel frame construction:
Mild Steel is used for the steel framed structure. And no, this steel is not “mild”. It is strong enough that one bar of mild steel can sustain a weight of 20,000 kg. And even under immense pressure, it does not crack, it slowly bends. These properties make mild steel eligible to be used extensively in the construction, where strength and durability play an essential role.